# Texts

- The Problem of Learning
- Courseware on Problemistics
- Corso su Problemistica
- Resources Management
- Manuale/Intellettuale
- Campagna/Città

Problemistics - Problémistique - Problemistica

The Art & Craft of Problem Dealing

- The Problem of Learning
- Courseware on Problemistics
- Corso su Problemistica
- Resources Management
- Manuale/Intellettuale
- Campagna/Città

Modelling

Modelling(^)Modelling is building Models for the representation of modules, i. e. the entities of a System.

Stages

Modelling requires one to:

- Decompose the system into its basic entities

- Identify the essential/relevant entities and linkages

- Recompose a simplified/selected version of the system with its

essential/relevant entities and linkages (i.e. the model)

Models(^)

Models (^)

Definition

A Model is a selected simplified representation of the essential or relevant entities (modules) of some specific reality and their characteristics (fields, factors, features).

Classification

The basic types of Models are:

- Iconic

- Analogue

- Symbolic

Iconic (^)

Definition

An Iconic Model is a look-alike representation of some specific entity

(e.g. a house)

Classification

Iconic Models can be represented in:

- Two Dimensions : e.g. photos, drawings, etc.

- Three Dimensions : e.g. scale model

Remark

A scale model can be a:

- reduction (scaled down, e.g. the model of a building)

- reproduction (same scale, e.g. copy model, prototype or working model)

- enlargement (scaled up, e.g. the model of an atom)

of some specific entity

Analogue (^)

Definition

An Analogue Model is the representation of entities of a system by analogue entities pertaining to the model (e.g. through diagrams).

Classification

An Analogue Model can be built through:

- Two Dimensional Visualization : Charts, Graphs, Diagrams

(e.g. the colour coding of a geographical chart for representing different altitudes)

- Three Dimensional Visualization : Analogue Devices

(e.g. the flow of water in pipes to represent the flow of electricity in wires or the flow of resources in an economic system)

Symbolic (^)

Definition

A Symbolic Model is the representation of entities of a system through symbols.

Symbols can be:

- mathematical

- logical

- ad-hoc

Remark

A Symbolic Model is used whenever the reality is:

- too complex or too abstract to be portrayed through an iconic or analogue model

- the factors of the system (variables) can be represented by symbols that can be manipulated in a meaningful and fruitful way

Modelling : summing up(^)Modelling is the building of Models.

Models can be:

- Iconic

- Analogue

- SymbolicThe use of Models allows for:

- Exploration

- Explanation

- ExtrapolationExtrapolation is achieved through manipulation of Models with a view to

Simulating.

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