Framework

Framework


Framework


Framework : summing up

 


 

Framework  (^)

 


 

Framework  (^)

Definition

The Framework is the shell within which the process of Problem Dealing takes place.


Function

The function of the Framework is to provide a background and a thread for all the stages and activities of Problem Dealing, i.e.:

  • generate/promote input

  • organize/direct throughput

  • assess/appraise output



Components  (^)

The Framework consists of the following components:

  • Landmarks

    Modules

  • Patterns


The components are the working materials and ingredients for the activity of Problem Framing.



Problem Framing  (^)

Definition

Problem Framing is the activity of delimiting and organizing the area of Problem Dealing.


Function

The basic function of Problem Framing is to address and assess all the activities of Problem Dealing. This function is performed through the interplay of Landmarks, Modules, Patterns.

 


 

Landmarks  (^)

 


 

Landmarks  (^)

Definition

Landmarks are fundamental aspects of life experience that manifest themselves as:

  • Needs

  • Values

  • Norms

 


 


Needs  (^)

Definition

Human needs are basic universal exigencies of the human being whose appropriate satisfaction generates and sustains a condition of fitness.


Analysis of Definition

- Basic = intrinsic to the emotive/cognitive/volitive dimensions of human nature

- Universal = common to all human beings

- Exigencies = essential requirements for functioning/thriving as a human being

- Appropriate satisfaction = related to widely recognized standards

- Fitness = psychophysical working of the organism


Classification

Needs can be classified with reference to the following categories:

Category

Qualifications

Time present - future; recurrent - non recurrent
Space geographical area : warm climate - cool climate
Type biological, psychological, social, etc.
Weight strong - weak; high priority - low priority
Subject old - young; male - female; normal - special
Range individual - collective
Link associated needs - disjointed needs


Function

The function of needs is to promote and guide the process of Problem Dealing.

The role of Problem Dealing with respect to needs is to guarantee and foster:

  • preconditions for satisfaction

  • satisfaction

  • sustainability of satisfaction

 


 


Values  (^)

Definition

Values are emotive, cognitive, and volitive aspects of the human being that reveal themselves as attitudes, beliefs, commitments.


Analysis of Definition

- Emotive/Cognitive/Volitive = dimensions of human nature

- Attitude = emotive disposition towards somebody - something

- Belief = cognitive conviction

- Commitment = volitive (operative) engagement


Classification

Values can be arranged and classified with reference to the following categories (dimensions):

Category

Qualifications

Emotive pleasant, fair,  beautiful
Cognitive just, true, valid
Volitive good, right, useful


Function

The function of values is to address and assess the process of Problem Dealing.

The role of Problem Dealing with respect to values is to root/deepen/spread them, as deemed appropriate to the Problem.

 


 


Norms  (^)

Definition

Norms are emotive, cognitive, volitive guidelines for the human being in the form of principles, rules, laws.


Analysis of Definition

- Emotive/Cognitive/Volitive = dimensions of human nature

- Principle = moral norm

- Rule = technical norm

- Law = legal norm


Classification

Norms can be arranged and classified with reference to the following categories :

Category

Qualifications

Permissive to allow (can do)
Indicative to regulate (should/could do)
Prescriptive to command (do)
Proscriptive to forbid (do not)


Function

Norms are means for:

- regulating the dealing with problems (can/could do)

- assisting in dealing with problems (should do)

- instructing for dealing with problems (do, do not)


The role of Problem Dealing with respect to norms is to grow/refine a repository of principles, rules, laws that will reduce the likelihood of 'problem arising' (sprouting/spreading) and increase the likelihood of 'problem disposing' (finding, solving, acting upon).

 


 


Landmarks : overview  (^)

The general role of the Landmarks (needs - values - norms) within the Framework is to:

  • promote the selection of the Research theme

  • influence the formulation of the Design project

  • guide the implementation of the Planning goals


In these respects needs - values - norms act and interact as :

  • Parameters (needs)

  • Criteria (values)

  • Standards (norms)

in the various phases of Problem Dealing.


The Landmarks are the viewing points from which Modules of Problemistics are seen and approached.

 


 

Modules  (^)

 


 

Modules  (^)

Definition

Modules are any entity relevant to the process of Problem Dealing.


Modules are characterized by the following aspects:

  • fields : the specific domains in which modules play a role (as situations, operations, combinations)

  • factors : the specific elements (isolated) and components (interrelated) that make up modules

  • features : the specific properties (constant) and instances (changeable) of factors


Classification

Modules can be classified according to the various roles they play in Problem Dealing  as situations/operations/combinations.


For this reason Modules can be seen as:

Nodes situations of modules
Paths operations of modules
Nets combinations of modules


Function

The function (role) of Modules in Problem Dealing is similar to that of pieces in an assembly kit.


Modules are dealt with by taking into account their

actual situations (Nodes : position, state)
possible operations (Paths : motion, process)
preferable combinations (Nets : association, direction)


The dealing with Modules is aimed at the emergence of Patterns.

 


 

Nodes  (^)

 


 

Nodes  (^)

Definition

Nodes represent situations (state, position) of Modules.


They appear as:

  • Data

  • Facts

  • Concepts

 


 


Data  (^)

Definition

Data are containers/providers of Information in the form of:

  • Signs

  • Signals

  • Symbols


Analysis of Definition

- Sign = indicator of potential (possible) meaning

  (e.g. a medical symptom, a trace, a clue)


- Signal = indicator of intentional (actual) meaning

  (e.g. a directional arrow)


- Symbol = indicator of conventional (arbitrary) meaning

  (e.g. symbols in chemistry; in religion, etc.)


Classification

Data can be classified according to:

Category

Qualifications

Who provider - source
Where place - origin
What nature - type - content
Why role - rationale
When time - length of time - how many times (collecting)
How modes of collecting - selecting
Which form - texture (aggregate/disaggregate)


Function

The function of Data is to produce Information that promotes/leads to understanding in Problem Dealing, making it possible to:

  • depict situations (state, position)

  • draft operations (change, motion)

  • devise combinations (association, direction)


Requirements

To accomplish their function, Data should be characterized by:

  • Representativeness (i.e. illustrative, indicative)

  • Relevance (i.e. useful)

  • Reliability (i.e. trustful)

 


 


Facts  (^)

Definition

Facts are selected, verifiable or highly reliable Data drawn from experience to which some meaning is attributed.


Analysis of Definition

- Selected = relevant

- Verifiable or Reliable = documented, sound

- Data drawn from Experience = occurrences, happenings, events

- Meaning = significance and signification


Classification

Facts can be classified according to:

  • Type

    - theoretical (conceptions)

    - empirical (sensations)

  • Time

    - unique (e.g. a historical event)

    - recurrent (e.g. an eclipse)

    - replicable (e.g. a laboratory experiment)

  • Tie-in

    - causation (facts cause - facts effect)

    - correlation (association of facts)


Function

The function of Facts is to assist in:

  • Problem Finding : addressing hypotheses about problems

  • Problem Solving : generating ideas for solutions

  • Problem Acting :  supporting decisions on actions

 


 


Concepts  (^)

Definition

Concepts are tools for dealing with reality.

They are the product of abstraction, categorization and representation of entities of experience (Data and Facts).


Analysis of Definition

- Abstraction = symbolization of entities

- Categorization = generalization (association) and discrimination (differentiation) of entities

- Representation = formalization of entities (e.g. labelling, visualizing)


Classification

Concepts can be classified according to:

Category

Qualifications
Content

(referent)

Concrete ---------------------- Abstract

(thing) ----------------------- (thought)
Character

(refinement)

Firm ---------------------------- Fuzzy

(well-definable ------------ ill-definable)


Function

The function of Concepts consists primarily in:

- mastery of Information (organization of Data, Facts)

- sharing of Communication (coding/decoding of Messages)


Remark

New Data and New Facts sometimes require totally New Concepts for Information and Communication to take place.

 


 

Paths  (^)

 


 

Paths  (^)

Definition

Paths represent operations (process, motion) of Modules.

They are referred to as:

  • Ends

  • Means

  • Modes

 


 


Ends  (^)

Definition

Ends are general aims (Goals) that are converted to and pursued as objectives and targets.


Analysis of Definition

- Goals = general aims

- Objectives, Targets = specific operative aims

 


 

Means  (^)

Definition

Means are resources (tools, goods, skills, etc.) employed in order to achieve Ends.


Remark

Means and Ends in Problem Dealing are seen as entities on a continuum of different gradations.

• --------------------------------------- •

means       means/ends            ends

 


 


Modes  (^)

Definition

Modes are ways and styles expressed while using Means to achieve Ends.


Analysis of Definition

- Ways = procedures

- Styles = techniques

 


 

Nets  (^)

 


 

Nets  (^)

Definition

Nets represent combinations (association, direction) of Modules.

They appear as:

  • Relations

  • Forms

  • Meanings

 


 


Relations  (^)

Definition

Relations are links between two or more Modules.


Analysis of Definition

- Link = connection

- Modules = nodes, paths, nets


Classification

Relations can be classified according to:

  • Type

    - Formal : e.g. visual

    - Factual : e.g. operational

    - Functional : e.g. effectual

  • Measure

    - Order : e.g. first, second, etc.

    - Degree : e.g. bigger than, smaller than

  • Nature

    - Coincidence : accidental connection

    - Correlation : associational connection

    - Causation : essential connection

 


 

Forms  (^)

Definition

Forms are the configuration and organization of Modules in space (setting) and time (sequence).


Analysis of Definition

- Configuration = placement, location

- Organization = arrangement, disposition

- Modules = nodes, paths, nets


Classification

Forms can be classified according to:

  • Type

    Logical  (Conceptual)

    Phenomenological  (Perceptual)

  • Shape

    Identical/Similar/Dissimilar

    Regular/Irregular

    Symmetrical/Asymmetrical

  • Size

    Large - Medium - Small

 


 


Meanings  (^)

Definition

Meanings derive/originate from the attribution of specific significance and signification to Modules.


Analysis of Definition

- Significance = importance, relevance

- Signification = import, sense

- Modules = nodes, paths, nets

 


 

Modules : overview  (^)

Modules are entities to be taken into account in the process of Problem Dealing.


For analytical reasons Modules are classified as:

  • Situations : Nodes

  • Operations : Paths

  • Combinations : Nets


The Problem Dealer acts and interacts with Modules (that is with situations, operations, combinations) in order to produce Patterns.

 


 

Patterns  (^)

 


 

Patterns  (^)

Definition

Patterns emerge from the compositions of Modules (nodes, paths, nets) under the influence of Landmarks (needs, values, norms).


Patterns are referred to as:

  • Systems

  • Structures

  • Schemata

 


 


Systems  (^)

Definition

Systems are Patterns made by Relations (internal and external) of Modules.


Analysis of Definition

- Internal Relations = relations amongst modules inside the system

- External Relations = relations between modules inside the system and modules outside in the environment

- Modules = nodes, paths, nets


Classification

Systems can be classified with reference to:

Category

Qualifications

Condition static - dynamic
Process deterministic - probabilistic
Components hard (e.g. mechanical) - soft (e.g. social)
Interactions simple - complex
Environment open system - closed system


Function

The function of Systems is to produce internal/external Relations amongst Modules working for the achievement of Ends.


Remark

A System is also a theoretical tool, the function of which is to portray relations amongst Modules in order to explain the working of a specific reality.

 


 


Structures  (^)

Definition

Structures are Patterns of Forms emerging from the composition of Modules.


Analysis of Definition

- Forms = configuration and organization of modules

- Modules = nodes, paths, nets


Classification

Structures can be classified according to:

  • Type : biological (e.g. organism) - social (e.g. community) - technical (e.g. building)

  • Condition : static - dynamic

  • Size : molecular (small) - molar (large)

Function

The function of Structures is to

- express (e.g. biological structure)

- organize (e.g. social structure)

- support ( e.g. architectural structure)

Forms arising out of the composition of Modules.

 


 


Schemata  (^)

Definition

Schemata are Patterns of Meanings emerging from the composition of Modules.


Analysis of Definition

- Meanings = significance and signification of modules

- Modules = nodes, paths, nets


Classification

Schemata have been variously classified/characterized as, for instance:

Co-ordinate System (Albert Einstein)
Construct (John Kelly)
Frame (Marvin Minsky)
Image (Kenneth Boulding)
Paradigm (Thomas S. Kuhn)
Perspective (Karl Mannheim)
Scheme (Jean Piaget, Frederic C. Bartlett)
Worldview (Robert Redfield)

Function

The function of Schemata is to detect and capture Meanings arising out of the composition of Modules.

 


 

Patterns : requirements (^)

 


 

Patterns : requirements  (^)

Patterns should present/possess some requirements summarized as:

Balance (rightful) stress on relations
Harmony (beautiful) stress on forms
Scope (fruitful) stress on meanings

 


 

Balance  (^)

Definition

Balance is the equilibration of Modules (and associated factors) aimed at achieving rightful Patterns  (stress on Relations).


Analysis of Definition

- Equilibration = dynamic balancing

- Rightful = appropriate, fair

- Factors : the specific elements (isolated) and components (interrelated) that make up modules

 


 


Harmony  (^)

Definition

Harmony is the integration of Modules (and associated factors) aimed at achieving beautiful Patterns  (stress on Forms).


Analysis of Definition

- Integration = joining of varieties into unities

- Beautiful = possessing rhythm and scale

- Factors : the specific elements (isolated) and components (interrelated) that make up modules

 


 


Scope  (^)

Definition

Scope is the finalization of Modules (and associated factors) aimed at achieving fruitful Patterns (stress on Meanings).


Analysis of Definition

- Finalization = productive tension and intention

- Fruitful = suitable (apt) and reliable (fit)

- Factors : the specific elements (isolated) and components (interrelated) that make up modules

 


 


Patterns : overview  (^)

Patterns are the product of the interplay of Modules under the influence of Landmarks.


Patterns are referred to as:

  • Systems

  • Structures

  • Schemata


Patterns should emanate/result from a combination of Modules and should present/possess:

  • Balance

  • Harmony

  • Scope

 


 

Framework : summing up  (^)

The process of Problem Dealing takes place within the general reference aspects of the Framework, namely:

  • Landmarks: act as lighthouses in order to focus and highlight Modules of Problem Dealing

  • Modules: are the entities which are to be acted upon during the various stages of Problem Dealing

  • Patterns: are the product of the composition of Modules, hence the result of the process of Problem Dealing


Having established the Framework of the Problem, the process of Problem Dealing can get under way with the phase of Research.